Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.
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You ought to know that the purpose of Scripture is simply to teach true science and right practice. From this it will be clear to you that true allegories ought not to be set down in popular books, let alone false ones. This proposition al-maqla questioned by no Muslim and doubted by no believer.
They agree also about naming the extremes; but they disagree about the intermediate class. This is the furthest extent to which purification [of concepts] ought to be admitted.
In memory of my father
They only disagree about past time and past being: And the should accept from them gladly and gratefully whatever in these books accords with the truth, and draw attention fask and warn against what does not accord with the truth, at the same time excusing them. Over and above all this, these opinions about the world do not conform to the apparent meaning of Scripture.
Now since this religion is true and summons to the study which leads to knowledge of the Truth, we the Muslim community know definitely that demonstrative study does not lead to [conclusions] conflicting with what Scripture has given us; for truth does not oppose truth but accords with it and bears witness to it.
Select All Clear All Save to: This is the status of bodies whose generation is apprehended by sense, e. It is therefore our obligation, in the interests of truth and of ending your perplexity, to resolve this difficulty, after formulating it; for he who does not know how to tie a knot cannot untie it.
They fall into two divisions: A llegorical interpretations, then, ought not to be expressed to the masses nor set down in rhetorical or dialectical books, i. The Arabic article is omitted in front of single names, e. This opinion is suitable for the elite. For the occurrence of change in knowledge when beings change is a condition only of knowledge which is caused by beings, i. The Law provides other methods of instructing them.
Thus one of two alternatives is necessary: The way to resolve this difficulty, in our opinion, is to recognize that the position of the eternal Knowledge with respect to beings is different from the position of originated knowledge with respect to beings, in that the existence of beings is a cause and reason for our knowledge, while the eternal Knowledge is a cause and reason for beings. In memory of my father. But if someone other than ourselves has already examined that subject, it is clear that we ought to seek help towards our goal from what has been said by such a predecessor on the subject, regardless of whether this other one shares our religion or not.
But both alternatives are impossible for God the Glorious. Anyone who commits an error about this class is excused, I mean any dasl. Trustees of the E. Indeed, they consider that His knowledge is the cause of their coming into existence, also that It sends premonitions of particulars in dreams.
If fxsl were not for the publicity given to the matter and to these questions which we have discussed, we should not have permitted ourselves to write a word on the subject; and we should not have had to make excuses for doing so to the interpretative scholars, because the proper place to discuss these questions is in demonstrative books.
The popular portions of the Book are miraculous fwsl providing for the needs of every class of mind.
Their view is that His knowledge of both particulars and universals differs from ours, in being the cause, not an effect, of the object known. Indeed God has already removed many of these ills, ignorant ideas and misleading practices, by means of this triumphant rule.
But it is inexcusable to deny the fact of a future life altogether. I refer to the fact that philosophy is the friend and milk-sister of religion; thus injuries from fawl related to philosophy are the severest injuries [to religion]apart from the enmity, hatred and quarrels which such [injuries] stir up between the two, which are companions by nature and lovers by essence and instinct.
Such, then, is the formulation of this problem in its strongest possible form, as we have explained it to you in conversation.
The precious Book has told us to seek it by acts conformable to the Law, in several verses. But God directs all men aright and helps everyone to love Him; He unites their hearts in the fear of Him, and removes from them hatred and loathing by His grace and His mercy! They even hold that God sends premonitions in dreams of particular events. He is unable to make them all doctors, because a doctor is one who knows by demonstrative methods the things which preserve health and cure disease.
On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy – Wikipedia
Death is a cessation; it must therefore be of the organ, as is the case in sleep. Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer for Muhammad His chosen servant and apostle.
The reason for that [in the case of the latter] is that allegorical interpretation comprises two things, rejection of the apparent meaning and affirmation of the allegorical one; so that if the apparent meaning is rejected in the mind of someone who can only grasp apparent meanings, without the allegorical meaning being affirmed in his mind, the result is unbelief, if it [the text in question] concerns the principles of religion.
But if other bodies are supposed, this state of affairs does fask follow as a consequence. How can God be aware of a change in reality without a corresponding change occurring in His eternal Knowledge?
Therefore such [a text] ought not to be interpreted allegorically by any but the elite and the scholars; and those who notice that it is symbolic, without being al-maaql the class of people who can understand what it symbolizes, should either be told that it is of the ambiguous kind whose meaning is known by the well grounded scholars, or the symbolization in it should be translated for them into something [even] easier than what they know, the fact that it is symbolic.
Harm from it is accidental, like harm from taking medicine, drinking water, or studying law. The second class occurs where the premisses, in spite of being based on accepted ideas or on opinions, are certain, and where the conclusions are symbols for the things which it was intended to conclude.
For those religious sayings in the precious Book which are expressed to everyone have three properties that indicate their miraculous character: If this is so, then whenever we find in the works of our predecessors of former nations a theory about beings and a reflection on them conforming to what the conditions of demonstration require, we ought to study what they said about the matter and what they affirmed in their books.
Moreover, this is a situation that is self-evident not in the scientific arts alone but also in the practical arts; for there is not one of kltab which a single man can construct by himself.
It was due to allegorical interpretations, especially the false ones, and the supposition that such interpretations of Scripture ought to be expressed to everyone, that the sects of Islam arose, with the result that each one accused the others of unbelief or heresy. The reason why we have received in Scripture texts whose apparent meanings contradict each other is in order to draw the attention of those who are well grounded in science to the interpretation which reconciles them.
The position clearly is that this matter belongs to the class  about which there is disagreement. For this manner of kirab which arises owing to them is something that is attached to them by accident, not by essence; and when a thing is beneficial by its nature and essence, it ought not to be shunned because of something harmful contained in it by accident.
For our soul is in the utmost sorrow and pain al-maqa reason of the evil fancies and perverted beliefs which have infiltrated this religion, and particularly such [afflictions] as have happened to it at the hands of people who claim an affinity with philosophy.