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The body, as origin and object of desire, is constantly given to us, sometimes as a lavishly decorated spectacle, other times as a mutilated scrap heap.
Paz, in his now classic study of modern poetry, Los hijos del limo, continues his distinction between the two great poets of modernismo.
In discussing the poets of modernismo Amado Nervo emphasizes the special nature of the poet and the role of introspection in learning a;render see the interrelationship of outward things:.
By freezing it in time, by surrounding it with rites of previous and current criticism, modernismo becomes a useful object, a museum piece or point of reference.
What value could there be in its brusque injection into Spanish literature, which has not [yet] suffered the ten evolutions previous to the French one, and still lives on little more than imitations and reflections, najeda its own, sometimes foreign?
They view their role not as visionaries who have chosen isolation but as prophets who have been forcefully removed from certain spheres by their enemies, the forces of utilitarianism and bourgeois conservatism.
: Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle
The subversive shifts and overt disavowals they vallejo of a veiled authoritative order are the weapons they use in dismantling hierarchical form, including a realignment of the speaking subject. Single figures draw the focus, rather than panoramic scenes. The ironic note, voluntarily antipoetic and therefore more intensely poetic, appears precisely in the noontime of modernismo [ Cantos de aprenddr y esperanza, ] and appears almost always associated with the image of death.
Yet the study of Lugones is made fascinating by the very reason of these changes and the contradictory nature of much of his work.
Spiritual universalism and a mystical aestheticism combine con. Rubendarismo was our homesickness for Europe. The acceptance of codified images in modernismo for example, the femme fatale, twilights, emphasis on luxury and sonority usually implies acceptance of the whole cultural aura that surrounds these images. In his statements on Lugones, Borges makes analogies between Lugones and himself as well as with his entire generation.
Books by Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera
By postmodernista rejections, exaggerations, and parings-down of modernismo ‘s stock images and procedures, we can trace the shifting points of view that were already present in the construction of modernismo ‘s seemingly fixed scenes.
It polished up the images; it sealed its lips to the diction vallejl ancient beauty; it put crushing weights of gold on the world. The bonds of a mutually supportive fraternity of artists are as evident as his critical viewpoint when he records his first impressions of Lugones in Not simply as a sign, valleejo there is nothing beforehand to represent.
There is here a primary proof, so general, that it was a commonplace of valljo last two decades of the century: Jorge Luis Borges attributes the inclination to parody or caricature in Lugones’ poetry to an overloading process.
The Dissonant Legacy of Modernismo
Cada adjetivo y cada verbo tiene que ser inesperado. It singles out oddity, distorts organic form, and exalts discontinuity. We want new trees to give new flowers and fruit! In “What Is an Author? The metaphor of eroticism as one of the bases for inquiry is not merely a descriptive scheme. In Lugones’ first three volumes of poetry, as well as in the journalistic prose and poems published in periodicals, almost all the elements of modernista writing can be found.
The style itself branches out and its foliage is even excessive. As one looks closer, this same insistence on dismantling the erotic image is reflected in the framing picture of these prized icons.
Juan Antonio Vallejo-Nágera
With the advent of photography and other means of reproduction, literature seemed to be losing its hold on the quasi-mystical role assigned to the artist. We see the dispersal of the framing poetic voice, the fragmentation of landscape, and a heightened experimentation with conventions of rhyme, rhythm, and meter.
Some of the comments recorded in a survey by the magazine Boy in illustrate his position as an influence, even a negative one. A touch of decor is out of place—something prosaic wanders into a rarefied setting, or the clanking of the pubico becomes overbearing, drawing too much of our attention. While modern taste prefers clean, spare lines, white walls, and open spaces, the modernistas work from a different set of culturally determined preferences.
In contrast to the civic, outwardly directed messages found in Spanish and Spanish American romanticism, modernismo, in its rediscovery of the romantics and the discovery of the symbolists, focused on human interiority, which is seen to be physiologically and spiritually connected to an outer reality.
Yet the different criteria applied are also reflections of a differing perception of the poetic function and a changing attitude toward the notion of individuality and the necessity of its expression in poetry. It is the self-containment or exclusiveness that offends. What is most striking in the production of these poets is their violence, a violence turned inward against the grain of language and outward against the usual signs of fulfillment, plenitude, and richness.
Old ones to the tomb, young ones to the task! Every artifice is production, not nature; product, not process. If order is a necessary precondition for transgression or for vice, these static landscapes and enclosed gardens, which seem to offer the qprender a single, directed point of view, in effect are engineered for more possibilities.
In this vein, a general tendency in Spanish American criticism has been to lump together all modernista writers under the label “rubenista” and to assume that the enclosure of nwjera rich poetic forms of modernismo were prisons from which more recent poets have needed to liberate themselves. Rarely has a feeling been the point of departure for his work; he had the habit of imposing upon himself incidental gallejo and working them out through technical means.
Having followed a path similar to Lugones’ up to a certain point—working within highly acclaimed distant models and theorizing about literature as a world of its aprsnder which provides directing force for other systems—Borges also exaggerated his own mannered style until it could no longer be controlled without a willed acceptance of its limitations. In verse it searched for pictorial preeminence, it made of the sonnet a scene for the passionate dialogue of the flesh.
The book market is completely paralyzed, which naturally is reflected in literary activity, extremely scarce, which has had to take refuge almost exclusively in the press. These poems are strategic, outflanking readers by beating them in the distancing game through means of more and more elaborate schemes and of towering lookout points of internal commentary.
Different codes are combined, transgressed, and transformed by a series of acceptances and rejections.